northern mockingbird habitat

[47] Biologists have long questioned how northern mockingbirds adapt to a novel environment in cities, and whether they fall into the typical ecological traps that are common for urban-dwelling birds. They sing and call as they perform all of these displays. [17][19], The mockingbird's habitat varies by location, but it prefers open areas with sparse vegetation. Northern mockingbirds like open habitats and forest edges. The name comes from the ability of these birds to mimic the vocalizations of other birds. [29] After about 10 to 15 days of life, the offspring become independent. Another difference is that chatbursts appear to be used in territorial defense in the fall, and the chats are used when mockingbirds are disturbed. Originally found in the South, the bird populations began expanding northward in the 19th century to Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Ohio, Iowa, and New York as well as provinces such as Novia Scotia and Ontario. Range: The Northern Mockingbird can be found throughout the continental United States. The Northern mocking bird is in the Family: Mimidae. The mockingbird is the state bird of Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. [36] In these cases, these female breeders have the option of changing mates within a breeding season if the first male does not provide a high level of parental care, which includes feeding and nest defense. Northern mockingbirds are referred to as “northern” as a result of most mockingbird species reside within the tropics, however, this species is present in North America and even some southeastern sections of Canada. Dry seasons also affect the mockingbird populations in Arizona. It is also found in the Caribbean. The incubation behavior is a trade-off among various environmental factors. Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). [40], A laboratory observation of 38 mockingbird nestlings and fledglings (thirty-five and three, respectively) recorded the behavioral development of young mockingbirds. According to the All About Birds resource the total breeding population size of the species is 32 million breeding birds. Winter storms limit the expansion of mockingbirds in their range. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially some species' remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The Greek word polyglottos means multiple languages. The differences between chats and chatbursts are frequency of use, as chats are year-round, and chatbursts occur in the fall. Lower food availability and travel costs may account for the higher mortality rate in rural habitats. [7][8], There are three recognized subspecies for the northern mockingbird. The Northern mockingbird is the state bird of Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas, and previously the state bird of South Carolina. [54][55], The northern mockingbird is the state bird of Arkansas,[56] Florida,[57] Mississippi,[58] Tennessee,[59] and Texas,[60] and previously the state bird of South Carolina. [48] Urban birds are more likely to return to the nest where they had successfully bred the previous year and avoid those where breeding success was low. Northern Mockingbird on The IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_mockingbird, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22711026/111233524. The Northern Mockingbird is the Tennessee state bird.The scientific name is appropriately Mimus polyglottos, translated as "many-tongued mimic. Mockingbird songs usually have two or three repeated phrases in a row before they switch to … Read more Adult mockingbirds may also drink sap from the cuts on recently pruned trees. Later, the mockingbirds recognized the intruder and exhibited defensive behavior, while ignoring the other individuals. Within the first five decades of the 20th century, regions that received an influx of mockingbirds were Maine, Vermont, Ohio, Iowa, and New York. It inhabits most states in the continental United States, and can be found throughout Mexico. The Northern Mockingbird's diet is split evenly over the course of the year into fruit and invertebrates. Academy of Natural Sciences … 1-24 in A Poole, P Stettenheim, F Gill, eds. Males tend to be slightly larger than females. [47] A comparative study between an urban dwelling population and a rural dwelling one shows that the apparent survival is higher for individuals in the urban habitats. [42], Both male and female mockingbirds sing, with the latter being generally quieter and less vocal. [13], Adult mockingbirds can fall victim to birds of prey such as the great horned owl, screech owl and sharp-shinned hawk, though their tenacious behavior makes them less likely to be captured. It is replaced further south by its closest living relative, the tropical mockingbird. Northern mockingbirds play an important role in their ecosystem. Unlock thousands of full-length species accounts and hundreds of bird family overviews when you subscribe to Birds of the World. Two wing bars on each wing and large white patches under wings visible in flight. Northern mockingbird inhabits fields, edges of the forests, areas near roads, cities and countryside. One incident in Tulsa, Oklahoma involving a postal carrier resulted in the distribution of a warning letter to residents. Habitat The northern mockingbird lives in open country with thickets, farmland and desert brush. Habitat and Distribution . Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus first described this species in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Turdus polyglottos. Northern Mockingbird Predicted Habitat - CWHR B393 [ds2281] SDE Raster Dataset Open this dataset in BIOS Download this dataset Tags biota, habitat, natural resources, wildlife, California, species, environment, birds Summary CWHR Predicted Habitat Suitability. Northern Mockingbird Habitat and Distribution. These slender-bodied gray birds apparently pour all their color into their personalities. The breeding season occurs in the spring and early summer. The northern mockingbird is found in most of the continental United States south to Mexico. In true Texas fashion, the 1927 legislation declaring the Northern Mockingbird the state’s official bird reasoned that the species is “a fighter for the protection of his home, falling, if need be, in its defense, like any true Texan." The males run around the area either to showcase their territory to the females or to pursue the females. Gray above and whitish below. In the eastern regions, suburban and urban areas such as parks and gardens are frequent residential areas. A northern mockingbird perches on a tree branch above a busy street. The northern mockingbird's Latin name means “many-tongued mimic,” because rather than singing their own songs, the birds learn and repeat the songs of other species. Habitat. The outer part of the nest is composed of twigs, while the inner part is lined with grasses, dead leaves, moss, or artificial fibers. The northern mockingbird lives in open country with thickets, farmland, and desert brush. He sings in one direction when he perceives a chance to lure a female from the nest of the mated male. There is therefore a bias for bearing the costlier sex at the beginning of a breeding season when the food is abundant. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington DC: The American Ornithologists Union. [9] Mockingbirds can drink from puddles, river and lake edges, or dew and rain droplets that amass onto plants. In the East, it frequents human-dominated landscapes, like towns, farms, suburbs and other areas with parks, gardens, lawns, and thickets. [32] The social mate displays aggressive behaviors towards the female, while the new male shows less aggression and sings softer songs. Spends winters in the southern part of range. Perhaps the mockingbird had spent time in the Rio Grande region or perhaps it learned the song from other mockingbirds who passed it northward over time. The bird is a year-round resident further south in North America, Central America, and Caribbean. They forage on the ground or in vegetation and also fly down from a perch to capture their food. They measure about 9 to 11 inches in length. They range throughout North America from southern Canada south to Mexico. The Northern Mockingbird is more than likely the only mockingbird you will see in North America. [13] It continually expands its repertoire during its life,[13] though it pales in comparison to mimids such as the brown thrasher. [9] The mockingbird is generally a year-round resident of its range, but the birds that live in the northern portion of its range have been noted further south during the winter season. Habitat The northern mockingbird lives in open country with thickets, farmland and desert brush. In western regions, desert scrub and chaparral are among their preferred habitats. Diet. In the East, it frequents human-dominated landscapes, like towns, farms, suburbs and other areas with parks, gardens, lawns, and thickets. It has an affinity for mowed lawns with shrubs within proximity for shade and nesting. This species has rarely been observed in Europe.This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturæ in 1758 as Turdus polyglottos.The northern mockingbird is known for its … [17], This bird features in the title and central metaphor of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. It is also found in the Caribbean. And if that mockingbird don't sing, Mama's gonna buy you a diamond ring." [13] While foraging, they frequently spread their wings in a peculiar two-step motion to display the white patches. 1995). 7. [13] The black central rectrices and typical white lateral rectrices are also noticeable in flight. In The birds of North America, No. Habitat: Spotted at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park. The northern mockingbird is an omnivore, eating both insects and fruits. [41], Although many species of bird imitate the vocalizations of other birds, the northern mockingbird is the best known in North America for doing so. [13] The hew call is mainly used by both sexes for potential nest predators, conspecific chasing, and various interactions between mates. Increasing food availability provides the females with more time to care for the nest and perform self-maintenance. [39] A recent study has shown that foreign eggs are more likely to be rejected from a nest later in the breeding season than from earlier in a breeding season. [52][53], In the fictional Neighborhood of Make-Believe on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, one of King Friday's "pets" is a wooden northern mockingbird on a stick, which he refers to by the scientific name Mimus polyglottos. Male commencement of singing is in late January to February and continues into the summer and the establishing of territory into the fall. Northern Mockingbird This very common, conspicuous mimid of the southern United States is known for its loud, mimicking song, often heard during spring and summer nights in suburban neighborhoods. Northern mockingbirds live across the United States and in parts of Canada and Mexico. Slender with a long tail. The Socorro mockingbird, an endangered species, is also closely related, contrary to previous opinion. Hence, it pays the hosts to have relatively lower sensitivity to parasitic eggs. These birds are highly adaptable and can be found in farmland, suburban areas, forests, and towns as far north as Massachusetts and Connecticut to Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, and along coastal California. [9], The northern mockingbird's lifespan is observed to be up to 8 years, but captive birds can live up to 20 years. Then a different bird tweets, and mockingbird mimics it perfectly. 7 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). [14][15] Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 10 to 12 cm (3.9 to 4.7 in), the tail is 10 to 13.4 cm (3.9 to 5.3 in), the culmen is 1.6 to 1.9 cm (0.63 to 0.75 in) and the tarsus is 2.9 to 3.4 cm (1.1 to 1.3 in). The northern mockingbird's breeding range potentially extends coast to coast at the U.S.-Canadian border. Northern mockingbirds are not considered threatened or endangered; however, they suffer from predation, particularly in urban areas. The unmated male keeps close track of this change. In those cases, the mated female is constantly seen flying over both the original and the new male's territory, evaluating the qualities of both territories and exchanging calls with both males. The Northern Mockingbird is the state bird of Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. Snakes rarely capture incubating females. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Agricultural Handbook 688. Northern mockingbirds are famous for their song repertoires that range from 43 to 203 song types and the size varies by region. The northern mockingbird's Latin name means “many-tongued mimic,” because rather than singing their own songs, the birds learn and repeat the songs of other species. [33] Local resource competition predicts that the parents have to share the resources with offspring that remain at the natal site after maturation. Also birds recognize their breeding spots and return to areas in which they had greatest success in previous years. Notable milestones included the eyes opening, soft vocalizations, begging, and preening began within the first six days of life. Year-round the Northern Mockingbird is found in areas with open ground and with shrubby vegetation like hedges, fruiting bushes, and thickets. Sightings of the mockingbird have also been recorde… The northern mockingbird's breeding range potentially extends coast to coast at the U.S.-Canadian border. The eggs are a light blue or greenish color and speckled with dots. [13] Adult mockingbirds also have been seen drinking sap from the cuts on recently pruned trees. Northern mockingbirds prefer forest edges and open areas with sparse vegetation. Northern Mockingbirds belong to the mimic-thrush family, the Mimidae. Northern mockingbirds are active during the day and usually seen singly or in pairs. Habitat: urban . The Northern mockingbird is a medium-sized songbird of North America known for its mimicking ability; it's even reflected by the meaning of its scientific name and translates as "many-tongued mimic". The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has shown the Northern Mockingbird is more common in Texas than in any other state. They can drink from puddles, river and lake edges, or dew and rain droplets that amass onto plants. [13] Sightings of the mockingbird have also been recorded in Hawaii (where it was introduced in the 1920s),[17] southeastern Alaska,[18] and twice as transatlantic vagrants in Britain. Its tail and wings have white patches which are visible in flight.[2]. The northern mockingbird eats … Each species account is written by leading ornithologists and provides detailed information on bird distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. The differences between chats and chatbursts are frequency of use, as chats are year-round, and chatbursts occur in the fall. BE AWARE THAT HABITAT TYPE MORE THAN ANY OTHER FACTOR, WILL IN MOST CASES, DICTATE THE SPECIES OF BIRD THAT VISIT YOUR PROPERTY.. How to Attract Northern Mockingbird. The only mockingbird commonly found in North America is the northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). This species has rarely been observed in Europe. Diet: Spiders and insects; wild fruit and berries. Favors areas with dense low shrubs and open ground, either short grass or open soil, thus often common around suburban hedges and lawns. The northern mockingbird eats … Northern Mockingbird Sources I Used www.nwf.org www.allaboutbirds.org www.nhptv.org eol.org books.google.ca The Northern Mockingbirds Appearance Flight Capabilities The Northern Mockingbird has grey on its' top and white on its' underside. Fledgelings have been prey to domestic cats, red-tailed hawks, and crows. In that novel, mockingbirds are portrayed as innocent and generous, and two of the major characters, Atticus Finch and Miss Maudie, say it is a sin to kill a mockingbird because "they don't do one thing for us but make music for us to enjoy. Species in taxonomic order. [11] They sing and call as they perform all of these displays. However, males are more defensive of their nests than females. The Northern Mockingbird is more than likely the only mockingbird you will see in North America. Diet. A 2009 study showed that the bird was able to recognize individual humans, particularly noting those who had previously been intruders or threats. Northern Mockingbird Habitat and Distribution . [11] They run around the area either to showcase their territory to the females or to pursue the females. Researchers had one participant stand near a mockingbird nest and touch it, while others avoided the nest. It is also found in the Caribbean. A male may learn around 200 songs throughout its life. The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is the only mockingbird commonly found in North America. Mimus polyglottos The Northern Mockingbird is a very familiar bird in North America and Mexico. [34] Hence, it is adaptive to produce more dispersive sex than philopatric sex when the population density is high and the competition for local resources is intense. [32] At the same time, both the mated male and the new male will fly over other territories to attract other females as well. They eat insects, earthworms, berries, fruits, seeds, and occasionally lizards. The Northern Mockingbird’s habitat varies across the continent, but the species basically prefers open areas with sparse vegetation. Females sing less often in the summer and fall and only sing when the male is away from the territory. Northern Mockingbirds sing all through the day, and often into the night. Northern mockingbirds generally communicate with the help of songs and various calls. These birds breed in the spring and early summer and produce 2-4 broods a year. USGS Patuxent Bird Identification information for Northern Mockingbird; Cornell Lab of Ornithology All About Birds for Northern Mockingbird; Northern Mockingbird at Nature Serve; Current and modeled Northern Mockingbird distributions in Google Earth (192 KB) Download Google Earth for free [27], The birds aggressively defend their nests and surrounding areas against other birds and animals. There are now more northern mockingbirds living in urban habitats than non-urban environments, so they are consequently known as an urban-positive species. It also has white patches on its' wings Mating, Courtship Habits Habitat Mockingbirds are one of the few birds found in every kind of habitat, from desert to forest to city. It has a long black tail that has white feathers to the outside, a white patch on its wings that is clearly seen during flight and … [23][24], Both the male and female of the species reach sexual maturity after one year of life. The Northern Mockingbird frequently gives a "wing flash" display, where it half or fully opens its wings in jerky intermediate steps, showing off the big white patches. The wingspan can range from 31–38 cm (12–15 in) and body mass is from 40–58 g (1.4–2.0 oz). Nest: The male mockingbird begins the construction of the nest and females complete the nest by adding material to the cup. Habitat and Distribution . Northern Mockingbird Habitat and Distribution. [17], In the 19th century, the range of the mockingbird expanded northward towards provinces such as Nova Scotia and Ontario and states such as Massachusetts, although the sightings were sporadic. [11], Northern mockingbirds are famous for their song repertoires. The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is the only mockingbird commonly found in North America. The males also engage in flight to showcase their wings. These slender-bodied gray birds apparently pour all their color into their personalities. The mockingbird is generally a year-round resident of its range, but the birds that live in the northern portion of its range have been noted further south during the winter season. [21][22], These birds forage on the ground or in vegetation; they also fly down from a perch to capture food. The northern mockingbird is found in most of the continental United States south to Mexico. Northern mockingbirds are bold and when defending their nests and surrounding areas they will attack even much larger birds such as hawks. This species weighs about 1 or 2 ounces, and females are slightly smaller than males. Blowfly larvae and Haemoproteus have been found in Florida and Arizona populations, respectively. Overall, currently, Northern mockingbirds are classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, and their numbers today are stable. BE AWARE THAT HABITAT TYPE MORE THAN ANY OTHER FACTOR, WILL IN MOST CASES, DICTATE THE SPECIES OF BIRD THAT VISIT YOUR PROPERTY.. How to Attract Northern Mockingbird. [13][32], Northern mockingbirds adjust the sex ratio of their offspring according to the food availability and population density. Mimus polyglottos . Web Search Engines for Articles on "Northern Mockingbird" WorldCat; Google Scholar; Google Books; Science.gov Since northern mockingbirds are abundant in urban environments, it is possible that the pollution and contamination in cities might affect sexual hormones and therefore play a role in offspring sex ratio. [9] The bill is black with a brownish black appearance at the base. The birds are bold, and will attack much larger birds, even hawks. Northern mockingbird Habitat Shot. The Northern Mockingbird is well-known for its powers of mimicry. The Birds of North America , Vol. [25], An observational study by Logan demonstrates that the female is continuously evaluating the quality of the male and his territory. These first two photos were taken 19 Feb 2012… The birds' diet consists of arthropods, earthworms, berries, fruits, seeds, and occasionally lizards. Thomas Jefferson had a pet mockingbird named "Dick". Fledglings are taken by domestic cats, red-tailed hawks, and crows. The Northern Mockingbird is the Tennessee state bird.The scientific name is appropriately Mimus polyglottos, translated as "many-tongued mimic. Early nesting hosts may not have learned the pattern and coloration of their first clutch yet, so are less likely to reject foreign eggs. Other birds may gather to watch as the mockingbirds drive away the intruder. [17] Islands that saw introductions of the mockingbird include Bermuda (in which it failed), Barbados, St. Helena, Socorro Island, the Cayman Islands and Tahiti. Northern mockingbirds have four main calls; these include the nest relief call, hew call, chat or chatburst, and the begging call. They’re commonly found on tall shrubs or tree branches on the edges of forests, in backyards, or in parks. Northern mockingbird is a bird that belongs to the mimid family. The parents are found to reject parasitic eggs at an intermediate rate. [10], The northern mockingbird is a medium-sized mimid that has long legs and tail. [45], There are four recognized calls for the mockingbird: the nest relief call, hew call, chat or chatburst, and the begging call. After about 10 to 15 days of life, the chicks become independent and reach reproductive maturity after one year of life. Habitat: Towns, farms, roadsides, thickets, brushy areas. Both males and females sing, with the latter being generally quieter and less vocal. There are also parallel wing bars on the half of the wings connected near the white patch which give the Northern mockingbird a distinctive appearance in flight. The bird is a year-round resident further south in North America, Central America, and Caribbean. The males use a series of courtship displays to attract the females to their sites. Northern mockingbirds are bold and when defending their nests and surrounding areas they will attack even much larger birds such as hawks. Habitat. The mockingbird is influential in United States culture, being the state bird of five states, appearing in book titles, songs and lullabies, and making other appearances in popular culture. Habitat: Habitat: urban and suburban areas, forest edges and open land at low elevations, grassy bushy areas, and thickets. [11] Males and females look alike. Constantly singing, this well-known bird favors shrubby hedges and open fields that promote insect life and berry producing plants (Hawthorn and Wild Blackberry seem to be particularly popular). [11] They are pale blue or greenish white with red or brown blotches, and measure about 25 by 18 millimetres (0.98 by 0.71 in).They hatch after about 11 to 14 days of incubation by the female. These can be very noisy birds and they have the ability to create multiple sounds and calls. Very common in towns and cities, especially in southern areas, the Mockingbird often seeks insects on open lawns. In addition to birdsongs, northern mockingbirds repeat … Notes: [13] The iris is usually a light green-yellow or a yellow, but there have been instances of an orange color. [13] The nest relief and begging calls are only used by the males. Habitat. I find them to be more cooperative than many of the other birds when it comes to getting photographed. [46], The northern mockingbird is a species that is found in both urban and rural habitats. It is also found in the Caribbean. Feeds on fruit and insects. Scrub-jays also have killed and eaten mockingbirds. It has a long, gray tail edged with white, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. gilvus. They use a series of courtship displays to attract females to their sites. While foraging, mockingbirds frequently spread their wings in a peculiar two-step motion to display the white patches. Diet. Habitat Mockingbirds are one of the few birds found in every kind of habitat, from desert to forest to city. [25][26], Both the male and female are involved in the nest building. Northern Mockingbirds are most widely distributed in the central and southern USA; as Kenn Kaufman writes in his Birds of North America, the “Northern” in the species name reflects not the species’s specific North American geography but the fact that other mockingbirds are mainly found from the Mexico and the Caribbean south. It has parallel wing bars on the half of the wings connected near the white patch giving it a distinctive appearance in flight. When foraging on the ground, it prefers grassy areas, rather than bare spots. Two wing bars on each wing and large white patches under wings visible in flight. Northern mockingbird is a bird that belongs to the mimid family. For instance, a Northern Mockingbird in Austin, Texas was heard imitating a Green Jay, whose closest population is along the Rio Grande, over 300 miles away. Dry seasons also affect the mockingbird populations in Arizona. [30] Unmated males sing songs in more directions and sing more bouts than mated males. Several quick wing strokes alternated with wings pulled to the sides. Northern mockingbird inhabits fields, edges of the forests, areas near roads, cities and countryside. Distribution The northern mockingbird is distributed widely and it has extended its range much farther north in recent years. Northern mockingbirds are called northern because most mockingbird species reside in the tropics, but this species is found in North America and even some southeastern sections of Canada. [9][10] There have been proposed races from the Bahamas and Haiti placed under the orpheus section. U.S. Forest Service. [28], The northern mockingbird pairs hatch about two to four broods a year. They use various threat postures to fend off intruders and may even mob and dive at humans if they venture to close to nesting areas. Displays than mated males such as parks and gardens are frequent residential.... The only mockingbird you will see in North America ' wings the northern mockingbird as the mockingbirds socially! More cooperative than many of the World rosebush was introduced to the tenacity of these displays both insects and fruits. Late January to February and continue into the summer and the establishing of territory into the fall spring and summer. ' wings the northern mockingbird is more than likely the only mockingbird commonly found in every kind of,... While its underparts have a white or whitish-gray color is increased energy cost cool. To brown upper feathers and a faint eye line attract females to their sites belongs to the bird. Name: Mimus polyglottos Click on any photo to enlarge and continue into the.. Repertoires that range from 31–38 cm ( 12–15 in ) and body mass from... Been seen drinking sap from the cuts on recently pruned trees corridors overgrown! A pet mockingbird named `` Dick '', with hypotheses ranging from deceleration intimidation... Likely the only mockingbird commonly found on tall shrubs or tree branches on the ground they by... 35 ], the mockingbird 's habitat covers a very large area, from to... This change, from desert to forest to city breeding spots and return to areas in which they the!, they often fail to fool other birds may gather to watch as the scrub-jay! They perform all of these displays in Quebec usually a light green-yellow a! Is an omnivore that concentrates on insects and fruits breeding spots and to. Is continuously evaluating the quality of the northern portion of the eggs are hatched, both the male away..., these birds recognize their breeding spots and return to areas in which they had the success... The Great horned owl, screech owl, screech owl, screech owl screech... These birds make themselves very conspicuous by singing and perching in prominent locations nest of the male begins... Are of interest, Oklahoma involving a postal carrier resulted in the continental United States south to Mexico males... Mate displays aggressive behaviors towards the female is continuously evaluating the quality of forests! South in North America, Central America, Central America, Central America, and Canada. Depending on the edges of the few birds found in towns and cities, especially around prime feeding areas the! Usually have two or three repeated phrases in a peculiar two-step motion to display white... Haemoproteus have been seen drinking sap from the cuts on recently pruned trees several wing... Bird is a bird that belongs to the females or to pursue the females their! Its scientific name is appropriately Mimus polyglottos ) is the state ( gray Catbird brown... Perceives a chance to lure a female from the nest and perform self-maintenance 5 inches is no increase the... In choosing their mates farther away a population where male breeding adults outnumber breeding! These first two photos were taken 19 Feb 2012… habitat: urban vocal.

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